The Demographic Transition Model and its 5 stages


Stage 1: High fluctuation - high birth rate and death rates - however population growth is small.

Reasons for high birth rate include:

Reasons for high death rate:


Stage 2: High birth rate but falling death rate. The total population begins to expand rapidly.

Reasons for falling death rate:


Stage 3: Falling birth rate, continuing falling death rate. The population growth slows down.

Reasons for falling birth rate include:


Stage 4:low fluctuating, low birth rate and low death rate. The population growth is small, and fertility continues to fall. There are changes in personal life styles, and more women are in the work force, therefre less couples are having kids (they'd rather get their careers sorted out first).


Stage 5: Death rate slightly exceeds the birth rate, and this causes population decline. This stage has only been recently recognised, and there are very few countries that are considered in stage 5.

Reasons for low birth rate include:






By Kate and Nick